Diabetes is a household name in the modern world whether it is type 1 or type 2. Type ii Diabetes, the more dangerous of the two develops when the body becomes insulin resistant and cannot handle the blood sugar levels in the body properly.
Insulin resistance or Type ii Diabetes occurs when body fails to produce adequate amount of insulin or does not use it properly and efficiently. Insulin helps the blood glucose that is popularly known as blood sugar levels remain in balance. Therefore, with the response to insulin becoming ineffective blood sugar is accumulated in the body. With the development of diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol levels may also develop considerably.
Usually the development of Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in the body occurs gradually. Thus any person may have the disease for months or even years before it is diagnosed. Some of the pre-diabetic symptoms are –
• Elevation in blood glucose levels though it is below the diabetes ranges.
• Development of other ailments like high blood pressure and high cholesterol levels in the anatomy.
Growing Dangers of Diabetes
Usually Type ii Diabetes were detected in people in advanced ages, above 40 years and in those having a family history of diabetes and its re occurrence in successors due to genetic problems. However the situation has changed dramatically with more and more young people suffering from type2 diabetes these days. Especially vulnerable are the adolescents.
• One of the greatest dangers is growing potential of double diabetes or hybrid diabetes in children.
• Overweight and high blood pressure can contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes.
• Some racial groups like African-Americans, Latinos, Native Americans and Asian-Americans are exposed to greater diabetes risks in comparison to others.
Alternative Names of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is also known by various names such as –
• Non insulin dependent diabetes,
• Adult onset diabetes; and
• Diabetes type 2.
A lifelong Chronic Disease
Worst part of it is that type 2 diabetes is a lifelong and chronic disease with high blood sugar in the bloodstream and it is also the most common form of the disease.
Main Causes of Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes always carries along high risk elements for the patient. Usually diabetes is caused when the body is either not able to create adequate amount of insulin or fails to create insulin at all. Insulin is vital for moving the blood sugar or glucose into the cells where the sugar is stored and later used to create energy on which the body runs. People suffering from Type ii Diabetes have the problem that their fat, livers, and muscle cells do not respond properly to insulin. This syndrome is known in medical science as insulin resistance. The result is that blood sugar does not go to the cells where they would be converted into energy and instead accumulate in the blood streams creating various problems.
If the sugar in the body cannot enter into cells, they will build up in the blood as already stated. This syndrome is known as hyperglycemia. Some of the facts about hyperglycemia are as follows.
• People who are overweight are more susceptible to the syndrome.
• Increased fat levels prevent insulin from being used properly in the body.
• However, thinner people can also develop hyperglycemia in their advanced ages.
Prominent Role Players
Prominent role players in development of Type ii Diabetes are family history and gene. True; lifestyle without discipline and overuse of junk food; alcohol; smoking can all generate Type ii Diabetes, but it is most common in people having family history of diabetes and genetic problems. Other prominent players that help develop this disease are low levels of activity, poor diet selection, and excel body weight in the person concerned.
Early Symptoms of Diabetes
Very often people do not display any symptom of diabetes and the symptoms are visible only after a long time when diabetes has already developed substantially in the body of the patient. However, the early symptoms of diabetes in patient could be as follows.
• Infections in bladder, kidney, or skin that heal slowly and reappears frequently;
• Fatigue in the patient;
• Too much hunger and frequent hunger pangs;
• Increased thirst in the patient; and
• Frequent urination.
Other First Symptoms
Some other first symptoms of diabetes are as follows.
• Blurring of vision.
• Erectile dysfunction.
• Pain and numbness in the feet or hands.
Testing for Type 2 Diabetes
Blood sugar level going above 200mg /dl could be dangerous and will indicate onset of Type ii Diabetes. If the fasting blood sugar levels are higher than 126mg/dl two times then also it will indicate diabetes. Usually the safest fasting blood sugar levels are in the range of 70-110mg and after food in the range of 110-150mg. Another test that is carried out is Hemoglobin A1c test where if the levels are less than 5.7% it would be considered as normal; pre-diabetes if in the range of 5.7%-6.4% and the person concerned is affected by diabetes when it is 6.5% or higher. In oral glucose tolerance test, if the glucose levels exceed 200mg/dl after two hours, then diabetes is detected.
Susceptible People Who Should Test
Tests are more necessary for those who are more vulnerable to diabetic attacks due to their anatomic features. These include -
• Children in the age group of 10 and above that are overweight and have other diabetic symptoms;
• Adults that are overweight and have body mass index higher than 25 and also have other risk factors; and
• Adults above 45 years in age.
For the first two categories the screening should be conducted once in two years and for last group once in three years. But health check up is necessary at least once in three months where blood pressure, skin and bones in feet and legs, numbness of feet, back part of the eye with ophthalmoscope and such other tests should be carried out. Usual healthy blood pressure level would be 80-130 Min-Max and LDL or cholesterol levels in the range of 70-100mg/dl.